Blue Diversion Autarky


  • Parnter Name
    Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • Partner Type
    Technology Partner
  • Contact Info
    Dr. Juri Lienert:
  • Website
  • Descriptive Overview
    The Blue Diversion Autarky toilet is a self-contained unit which separates and treats urine, solids and flushing water on site. Urine is chemically stabilized and concentrated. Solids are processed with supercritical water oxidation. The water treatment module combines a biological membrane reactor, activated carbon and electrolysis to provide save recycled water.
  • Key Features
    • Source separation allows for water recycling, nutrient recovery and optimal disinfection
    • Modular design: all treatment units can be operated alone or integrated in other systems
    • Superstructure allows integration of other treatment units
    • Attractive frontend developed with partner EOOS offers hygiene and comfort of modern water flushed toilets
  • Use Case Details
    Currently designed in a single stall configuration.
  • Dimensions (meters)
    L 2.2m x W 1.9m x H 3.4m (without stairs)
  • Weight (kg)
  • Regularly Scheduled Required Maintenance
    Water refill, fertilizer harvest from urine and feces treatment, supply of chemical reagent.
  • Use Cases
    • Single-stall Toilet
  • Interface Type
  • Frontend Description
    Uses a water-flushed urine-diverting pedestal inside a generic superstructure, with a waterless urinal and hand washbasin. Flush and wash water is recycled. Source-separating unit designed by EOOS. Urine is separated in a urine-diverting pedestal (NoMix toilet). Solids are separated in an Aquatron. The hand washbasin, the Water Wall, is available as a separate enabling component.
  • Approximate Water Use (L/flush)
  • Flush Water Source
    Internal (Recycled)
  • Users per Day (Expected)
    Currently designed for 10 users per day for a single stall.
  • Users per Day (Maximum)
  • Type of Waste Treated
    Solids Processing
  • Core Processing Technology
    Wet Oxidation
  • Processing Overview
    Feces, toilet paper and some flushing water are fed into a small-scale, batch-processing supercritical water oxidation reactor developed by the University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW).
  • Consumable Chemicals Needed
    Calcium hydroxide for urine stabilization.
  • Type of Waste Treated
    Liquids Processing
  • Core Processing Technology
  • Processing Overview
    Urine is chemically stabilized then undergoes passive evaporation, resulting in a solid product that can be harvested as fertilizer.
  • Processing Capacity
    20 L/day
  • Power Systems Overview
    Water wall and urine processing can be operated using solar power. SCWO reactor is still too early in development to assess energy requirements.
  • Energy Balance
    140 W-h/L urine current 20-80 W-h/L urine target 30-50 W-h/user/day Water Wall No data yet available for solids processing. Depending on solar panels used, some excess power generation may be possible.
  • Expected Design Lifetime (Years)
  • Currently in Active Development
  • Commercialization Status
    Seeking Development Partners
  • Commercialization Activities
    - Actively looking for and engaging partners for manufacturing and/or commercialization of the Water Wall component and for Autarky system. - Water Wall has TRL 6. Field tests in East Africa and Zurich - Urine module and user interface TRL 4. Field tests ongoing - Exhibited toilet unit TRL 4, does not include feces module. - Feces module TRL 3. Field tests in the beginning of 2019.
  • Intellectual Property Status
    Patent Pending
  • Intellectual Property Details
    Patent protection on the frontend of the device is being pursued by EOOS. Separate IP protection filed for hand-washing soap. Separation Toilet (EOOS) patent application number PCT/AT2013050154. Hand-washing soap patent number EP3450404A1; patent application number EP17189157.5.
  • Nutrient Reuse
    Solid nutrient recovery: >70% nitrogen, >80% phosphorus, >70% potassium and others.
  • Liquid Emission Characteristics
    Designed to recycle liquids; none is intended for discharge.
  • Technology Development Milestones
  • Field Tests for Feces Module
    TRL: 3 (2019)
    Feces module is currently TRL 3. Field tests are planned for the beginning of 2019.
  • Field Tests for Urine Module
    TRL: 4 (2018)
    Autarky urine module and user interface have achieved TRL 4. Field tests ongoing.
  • Water Wall and Squat Plate Testing
    TRL: 6 (2014)
    Extensive field testing of the Water Wall and squat plate interface has been performed in Kampala, Uganda with Makere University and in a Mukuru, Nairobi slum with Sanergy.
  • Water Wall Seeking Manufacturing Partners
    TRL: 7 (2018)
    The Water Wall hand washing station is ready for manufacturing and seeking partners.
Patent Number Description Link
EP3450404A1 Hand-washing soap Link
WO2014022873 Separation toilet Link